Anopheles balabacensis inhabits forested areas. The immature stages are principally found in shaded temporary pools of stagnant fresh water, including puddles, animal footprints, wheel tracks, ditches and rock pools. Larvae have been collected in animal wallows in primary forest in Sabah. They are sometimes found at the edges of swamps, streams and rice fields, and less frequently in containers (e.g. coconut shells, cocoa pods, barrels, drums and buckets) in shaded, partially shaded or sunny locations.
Anopheles quadrimaculatus Say is historically the most important vector of malaria in the eastern United States. Malaria was a serious plague in the United States for centuries until its final eradication in the 1950s (Rutledge et al. 2005). Despite the ostensible eradication, there are occasional cases of autochthonous (local) transmission in the U.S. vectored by An. quadrimaculatus in the east and Anopheles freeborni in the west (CDC 2005).
Anopheles gambiae is a complex of at least seven morphologically indistinguishable species of mosquitoes in the genus Anopheles. This complex was recognised in the 1960s and includes the most important vectors of malaria in sub-Saharan Africa particularly of the most dangerous malaria parasite, Plasmodium falciparum. It is one of the most efficient malaria vectors known.